RECENT TRENDS IN ELECTRONICS AND TELE-COMMUNICATION DESIGN-2014

For effective industrialization in the under developed countries and their economic growth, continuous developments with modern techniques in all possible areas are essentially required. As a result of innovative activities of our Scientists, Academicians and Technocrats, India is emerging as a leader in the developing world for rapid industrial growth. The developments of Electronics and Communication Technology and its application in all fields of engineering is assisting many industries to grow further.

Various technical reports indicate that continuous developments in the areas of VLSI, Satellite Communication, Antennae Design, Cloud Computing, Wireless Technology, Mobile Communication and Devices, Embedded System, Image and Video Processing, Application of Electronics in Bio-Medical Instrumentation, Interfacing of Electronic Devices with Mechanical and Electrical Machines & Equipments, Nanotechnology and Consumer Electronics Products, are bringing technological revolutions ensuring better quality of human life with enhanced efficiency and further industrial growth with sophistication and modern techniques.

Various developments in Electronics Engineering and its application have very high potential for technological revolution in Bio-Medical Engineering. Today, Bio-Medical Engineering and its course contents are limited mostly to Bio-Medical Instrumentation. With continuous improvements in Biosensors and Electronic Biochips, days are not very far when Medical Doctors will be converted to Bio-Medical Technocrats. Future Bio-Medical Technology will allow detection of various electrical, mechanical, electro-magnetic and other forms of micro signals by Biosensors and Bio-chips. Integration of Biochips with Biosensors and Computers will allow automatic diagnosis of human diseases. Once a disease is identified, automatic printing of medical prescription can be possible from a computer with medicines selected from medicine databases, through an appropriate computer software developed for the purpose.

India has very high population and without any population stabilization success, there is a report that India’s population may cross the population of China by 2030. We all know that majority of Indians are staying in rural areas. One of the major components and driving force of rural development is communication. Conventionally, communication includes electronic media, mobile communication devices, human communication and information technology (IT). All forms of communications have dominated the development scene in which its persuasive role has been most dominant within the democratic framework of the country. Communications with more improved satellite technology and radio broadcast have high potential for knowledge gain in rural areas. More low-cost “Communication and Networking Solutions” are required for rural developments. We have to accept these challenges for further innovations in this regard.

Prof (Dr). N. K. Kole, India

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DATA ACQUISITION, TRANSFER, PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT- 2014

Computer Technology and IT Devices are developing at such a rapid speed that technological revolution will go to unpredictable stage. The Computer Technology has passed through several generations of developments starting from 1st generation with Vacuum Tubes and Magnetic Drums, up to 5th generation with Artificial Intelligence. Another generation of development known as 6th generation is also becoming a practical reality.

Data Acquisition is a technical terminology. It is a high technological process, which is growing very rapidly with reliable Data Acquisition Systems consisting of sophisticated hardwares and high quality softwares. Sensors which convert physical parameters to electrical and other signals, are helping various improvements in Data Acquisition Systems in a big way with development of sensor technology and nano-sensors. With high quality softwares, Data Acquisition is now effectively controlled by software programmes. Good interfacing techniques among various hardware devices with improved Device Drivers, are also ensuring further improvements in Data Acquisition Systems.

Some business houses are making continuous efforts to explore the collection of huge data for IT professionals and utilize the same for much stronger business. The data comes from everywhere, both in structured and unstructured forms. The handling of huge data through Analysis, Storage, Processing and Management, will not only increase the business, but also will ensure corporate growth for all fields of Engineering, especially in IT sectors. It is important to know who owns the data and how data quality is maintained.

Computerized storage of data and proper utilization will require further development of new softwares keeping economic application in mind, so that more commercial application will take place. Software based storage management will be hardware dependent and further developments in hardware technology will be beneficial.

Various ideas, concepts, and applications of scientific theories for improving the Computer and IT Technology are coming up from all directions. We all know that great Scientist Albert Einsten gave the concept of Relativity Theory and Quantum Mechanics, whose applications are now taking place in many new areas. Very recently there was a news item, based on idea and research from China, which indicates that Einstein’s concept on Quantum Mechanics may lead to ultra secure internet. The concept says that Internet System may provide unprecedented security for Internet Messages through a future “Quantum Internet” and related developments may assist the growth in the area of Data Transfer.

The Researchers, Students, Scientists, Industrialists, Entrepreneurs are all required to realize the high potential of Data Acquisition, Storage, Processing and Management. They should take up more research and development activities in this regard.

Prof. (Dr.) N. K. Kole, India

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Recent Trends in Civil Engineering-2014

Civil Engineering is one of the oldest engineering disciplines and has over 5000 years’ of glorious history.  Various technical reports indicate that continuous developments at International Level in the areas of Structural Analysis and Design, Earthquake Engineering, Water Treatment Technologies, Soil Mechanics, Pavement Design, Construction Management, Urban and Regional Planning, are bringing technological revolutions ensuring better design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment with enhanced efficiency.

Rapid industrialization, population growth, mobility of people from rural to urban areas and growing urbanization in India are creating a huge demand for more infrastructural facilities.  The Civil Engineers and Scientists of the relevant fields, have a great challenge ahead for developing sustainable low cost technologies applicable to India, to meet the huge demand for infrastructure in recent future.

To fulfill challenging needs of the Indians, a good Civil Engineer must have vast knowledge in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Materials, Mechanics, Design, Computer Technology and Environment. A Civil Engineer should also have enough knowledge on Risk & Uncertainty, Sustainability, Public Policy & Administration, Business Basics and Social Sciences. Civil Engineers must be highly skillful to apply Basic Engineering Tools, learn New Technology, make Useful Communication to all concerned, collaborate and manage the projects. Civil Engineers also must have leadership quality, good attitudes to exhibit creativity, entrepreneurship, commitment, curiosity, honesty, integrity and self discipline.

For providing adequate water to all in India, Water Resource Engineering, Water Conservation Engineering, Water Purification Methods, Desalination Technologies need to be further upgraded along with more developed technology with energy saving techniques for Water Treatment.

A high awareness campaign in India is required to adopt “Global Life Cycle Design Philosophies for Waste Disposal” and global standards for Sustainable Design in Civil Engineering.

Civil Engineers and the Scientists in the relevant field, are aware that Transportation Engineering has a very great role to play for all round economic development of the country and for further industrial and other growth in future.  The quality consciousness of all concerned for construction of roads in our country is not very appreciable and the constructed roads get damaged very soon.  We all know that in the Rail Transportation System, the technology itself is such, that the contractors, engineers and administrators have no scope to lay bad quality rails. The technology itself ensures that laying of rails has to be with minimum standards, otherwise the train will either not move or not move properly. Similarity, for road construction, the road construction materials and the road construction technology should be developed in such a way that the technology will present the contractors, engineers and administrators to avoid any negligence for quality.  In this regard, the challenges ahead should be accepted.

 Prof. (Dr.) N.K.Kole, India

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INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN MANAGEMENT-2014

Innovations for products and services in Industrial Organizations, Innovative Teaching Learning Process in Education Sectors and Innovative Practices in every sphere of human life, have so much of importance to-day that Govt. of India has set up a National Innovation Council (India), to discuss, analyze and implement strategies for innovations. It has also the role to suggest a road map for innovation 2010-2020.

To encourage, Intellectual Property (IP) orientated technology development through R&D output in terms of innovations, Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India is encouraging the Universities and University Level Institutions to set up “Innovation Facilitation Centers” under a Funding Scheme, through National Research Development Corporation. This initiative of the Govt. of India will create a better environment for Innovation spirit among the faculties, students and researchers.

Introduction of new or significantly improved goods and services, or a new marketing method or a process, or a new system in business practice in Industrial and commercial organizations and innovative techniques for teaching-learning in educational institutions with the aid of modern Information and Educational Technology, are so much necessary in present day competitions that every organization is required to adopt good innovation management.

The success of any organization including educational institutions depends on good management, excellent management models and scientific management practices. Innovation in general, brings developments in any organization and, therefore, Innovative Practices in Management are essential for improvements and survival.

When we talk about Innovative Practices in Management we should be able to discuss “Innovative Teaching Practices in Management Education” and further development needed in this regard. Moderator Supported Learning Approaches (MSLA) having Learning Appraisal Seminars, Case Debates, Computer Simulations and other techniques as Learning Tools have been suggested by some educationists. They also suggested to encourage Poster Sessions, Break ’n’ Build and Free Fall Learning Technique as very effective “Self Learning Tools”. Evaluation of Learning Assignment for Moderator Supported Learning Approaches and Self Learning Tools based on several variables and proportionate score by the students, to measure abilities for concept development, information search, information utilization, problem solving, creative thinking and logical presentation of ideas are good Suggestions.

Prof (Dr) N.K. Kole, India

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GREEN BUILDINGS AND RATING SYSTEMS-2014

Buildings cause a number of environmental problems as a result of their design, construction, operation and maintenance. They consume large amounts of energy and resources, affecting the quality of air and water leading to climate change. A Green Building is one which uses less water, optimizes energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste, provides healthier spaces for occupants and creates less environmental impact, as compared to conventional building.

The concept of environmentally responsible and resource efficient buildings has led to various terminology known as Natural Building, Green Architecture, Sustainable Building, Green Construction, Green Building etc.

In Urban area, due to high demand of residential and office accommodation, scarcity of land and space, several buildings are designed and planned without the concept of using natural ventilation and light. In the process, the occupants mainly depend on artificial light, artificial air circulation with the help of electricity, creating huge energy demand. The use of Air Conditioners, in less ventilated buildings, lead to huge environmental problem since the refrigerant- Freon used in room Air Conditioners, gets released into the environment either due to leakage or through diffusion process, creating ozone layer depletion. The design of buildings, using the concept of natural lighting and cross ventilation is still widely practiced in Indian villages and the same should also get priority for urban areas, wherever possible.

Environment friendly construction practices and design of buildings to reduce environmental impact are essentially required for sustainable development. The practicing Architects and Civil Engineers, Research Scientists, Developers and Faculty Members of educational institutions of relevant area, should accept challenges in this regard in India.

Grades, Standards, Rating Systems and related Regulations, have been developed by various countries based on which credits are awarded for location, maintenance of building sites, building materials, energy & water conservation, control & health of occupants etc. to judge the level of performance of green buildings. Internationally, building rating systems have been instrumental in raising awareness and popularizing green design. However, most of the internationally devised rating systems have been tailored to suit the buildings of the countries, where they were developed. For this purpose, the system known as Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) by Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats and the work of Indian Green Building Council are of some acceptable standards in India. Green Building Rating Systems provide tools to building owners and operators for improving the performance of buildings in the key areas of human and environmental impact.

After certifying Green Buildings based on acceptable Grades, Standards and Rating Systems, there is also a need for performance monitoring of certified buildings for which developers, project authorities and building owners should voluntarily come forward to make India as global leaders in Green Buildings. More awareness today in India, is a necessity, in this regard.

Prof (Dr) N.K. Kole, India

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